It is known that modern laundry detergent – a rather complex mixture of different substances with different functions.
It includes surfactants which pulls dirt from the fabric yarns. Added substances, softening water, taking out of its calcium and magnesium salts and make wash possible. Finally, in the washing powder are chemical bleaching agents are in the washing powder that destroy (most often – oxidation) particularly stubborn dirt, and optical – a substance has no effect on the dirt, but having the properties of light under the action of a conventional or UV light (which is included in the spectrum of sunlight). Optical brightener makes laundered sheet whiter in appearance than it is, making it a little glow in the light. In addition to these basic substances in the detergent includes more perfumes, giving it a pleasant smell, it may also contain disinfectants that kill germs, antistatic removed from the clothes electrostatic charge, and enzymes that break down protein contamination. This composition, the middle of washing powder, which is considered suitable for most cases washing. But it is not for all cases. For example, the enzyme powder is not suitable for washing fabrics on the protein basis – of wool and silk. Good, no enzymes were added to all powders, but did not hurt if, for example, in soft water wash powder, which has a softener?
After all, there are whole areas where the water is extremely soft. In our mountain villages, for example, is not always required strong bleaches, and in fact all of these substances cause some harm to the environment, once after washing down the drain, and then – in the water.
There are ways to reduce the burden of the washing on the environment. For example, use for swaddling babies disposable paper diapers, diapers that do not have to wash. Somehow American ecologists have calculated what diapers better for Nature. It turned out, though tissue are long year in swaddling paper diapers requires half of the energy (there is no heating water for boiling and washing), four times less water (for the production of paper, too, is water, although less than in the wash), with half the air pollutants (textile industry produces more harmful gases and fumes than paper) and seven times less water goes. However, the use of disposable diapers gives four times more solid waste, but there were paper diapers, decaying in a landfill.
N. Fatkulina Chemistry teacher of the highest category, School №11 Tash- Kumyr
Information based on pages of an eco-newsletter “Voice of Nature”, PF “Chintamani”community multimedia center.